*Lipsey, R.G., K.I. Carlaw and C. Bekar (2005): Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies, and Long-Term Economic Growth, Oxford: Technologies 10,000 years before 900 CE included plant domestication, animal domestication, smelting of ore, the wheel, bronze, writing, iron, and the waterwheel. 900-1900 CE included the three-masted sailing ship, printing, the steam engine, factory system, railways, iron steamship, internal combustion engine, automobile, and electricity. The 20th Century included mass production, chemical engineering, lean manufacturing, computers, the Internet, and biotechnology. According to ARK Investment Management LLC’s research, the last 15 years has included sequencing, mobile connected devices, autonomous robotics, machine learning, and blockchain technology.